The quantity of goods and services sold in the global market makes the translation of license agreements particularly important. This study highlights why licensing agreements can be considered hybrid texts, which include some of the typical characteristics of legal texts as well as technical texts. It analyzes, from a qualitative point of view, the extent to which these aspects are maintained in translation. The analysis makes use of a small body of English licensing agreements and their Italian translations. A small comparable body of Italian texts has also been assembled for contrasting analysis. The aim of the study is to highlight the main problems in translating this specific type of text, the approaches and techniques adopted (such as transposition, expansion, addition and elimination). 19 However, these categories sometimes overlap and these concepts may differ from party to party. For example, the word chord can be considered semi-technical and context-dependent by the general public, who may not be aware of its high technicality and high accuracy. Instead, the contract draftsman can use it pragmatically as a highly technical term that defines a precise legal concept. The design and design of the concepts are also linked to the pragmatic perspective. On the one hand, the EULE can have an informative purpose, because users are informed of the various provisions. However, an ECJ is essentially a normative text (see section 2). The ST text is usually written by a company`s legal department and deals with a large number of topics.
As a result, the terms are generally not negotiated and the user only decides whether or not to accept the ECJ. This situation shows a performance asymmetry that leads to the idea that US A is by nature intended to protect the rights of the funder rather than inform users. It should be noted, however, that the legal principle of contract law may apply to contractual disputes. This principle indicates that ambiguities in private documents must be resolved against the interests of the party that produced the documents. This doctrine (sometimes called the "doctrine of ambiguity") is not applicable if both parties are included in the same way in the text and the inclusion of the ambiguous clause. This rule is intended to prevent deliberate ambiguity on the part of the editorial party (Anesa 2007; Animalsma 2005: 123) to the detriment of the other party (i.e. at the expense of end-users, in the case of THE EULA). 28Transposition refers to the replacement of one grammatical category with another, without any changes generally being introduced with regard to semantic characteristics. Among the different modes of implementation, Alcaraz and Hughes (2002: 181) identify the "pronoun for nomen" and a clear example of this process is present throughout the text.